Appendix 2: Roles within a project

This appendix provides definitions for the various roles of people who are part of a project.

  1. Project members/Project team
    The project members are the team members of the project those who actually carry out the project and those who have tasks within the project. Team members often have differing areas of expertise. Team members can be internal (company personnel), external (from project partners, customers, users or temporary personnel) or both.
  2. Project leader
    The project leader is the one who directs the project team and has ultimate responsibility for the project result. Depending upon what has been agreed, a project leader can obviously delegate responsibility to team members, and external managers may be responsible for some components of the project.
    In cyclical projects, the project leader represents the interests of both the customer and the programmers. Project leaders ensure that customers receive adequate technical explanation and help them to choose and prioritise functionalities.
  3. Project manager
    The terms project leader and project manager are often used interchangeably. A project manager is usually responsible for multiple projects, while a project leader usually has only one. Project leaders are thus located closer to the work floor than are project managers, who are usually more involved with direction and numbers. Other meanings and definitions also exist, and the terms are often used interchangeably.
  4. Programme manager
    The programme manager is the one who evaluates a number of projects within an organisation. Project leaders and project managers report to the programme manager, who is often a member of the management team.
  5. Customer
    The customer is the entity that has ordered the project result. Customers may participate actively in the project or maintain a greater distance. Although customers are sometimes also the users of the project result, this is not always the case. Consider the example of a university that wants a web application for its employees and students. In this case, the university is the customer, and its employees and students are the users.
  6. Users
    Users are the people who will actually use the project result. It is important to involve the users in the definition phase, design phase and in the testing of the project result
  7. Project partner
    The project partner is a third party (organisation) with whom the project is conducted. If several parties are participating in the project, it is obviously important to define and delimit responsibilities clearly.